On the 29th and 30th of June I attended LAST (Lean Agile Systems Thinking) Conference. The reason for my attendance was my first conference presentation. With Lee Hawkins (@therockertester) we presented our experiences of setting up the EPIC Testability Academy (ETA), running the classes and things we have learnt (aka, things we can do better). ETA is a software testing training course for people with autism. I have written about this in an earlier blog https://beaglesays.wordpress.com/2016/12/22/change-this-is-going-to-be-epic/. Lee has also blogged https://therockertester.wordpress.com/2017/01/08/a-new-year-and-a-new-challenge-the-epic-testability-academy/. You can also find more details at EPIC Recruit Assist http://epicassist.org/au/epic-testability-academy/ and http://epicassist.org/au/epichub/eta/.
Public speaking, at conferences, has not been a real focus of mine. The opportunity to co-present with Lee (who has a long history of conference speaking) and getting the spotlight onto EPIC Assist was an opportunity I was not going to let pass by. Preparing the talk and delivering it was a lot of fun. I guess it’s not that hard to tell the story if it is your experience. We have 2 requests to deliver this talk again and we are waiting to hear about a third.
There was something else that happened while I was at LAST, I clocked up 6 months with my new employer, Travelport Locomote. I mention this because ETA has a story attached that highlights the difference between my former employer and my current one. I’m not going to mention the name of my previous employer. If you’re curious you can find it on my LinkedIn profile, it’s not exactly secret. Regardless, it was toxic, made so by poor and indifferent management. This is a company that talks about assigning resources rather than people. A complete lack of trust by management towards their resources (with the exception of a chosen few), and a “carrot and stick” approach where the stick was much more prevalent. Management liked to point fingers, lay blame and seek retribution (I’ve got some incredible stories) Management formed meeting groups that included only those that echoed back what they wanted to hear. These were “group think” meetings. I didn’t get invited to many, I tend not to “echo back”. I prefer to challenge and suggest ways things could be better. In such an environment it’s not a survival strategy. In another blog I’ll talk about how learning to cope in such a high level of toxicity impacts you, even when you leave. It’s not pleasant and it’s more widespread than it should be. I know more than a few people that have gone through similar.
About 6 months before resigning from my former employer the EPIC Testability Academy became “a thing”. Funding had been approved, we had a vision, we had a name and the name had been registered. I was really happy that we had got this far. As things had been going along and building I’d been talking to friends and colleagues about the progress. There was a lot of interest and I had been asked by a lot of them if I could talk on it for 5 or 10 minutes at a monthly meeting that everyone attended. It sounded cool, I was up for sharing the story and answering questions.
The workplace was very much “chain of command”. I mailed my manager with the idea of speaking (because it had to be formally raised). He forwarded the idea to his manager for approval. “His” manager was the Development manager and owner of the monthly meeting. A response came back with astounding speed. “No, it isn’t a charity we support. You can’t present on it”. Not withstanding he hadn’t asked (EPIC is a not for profit organisation, not a charity) and that we had previously raised money for a charity we didn’t officially support. So it was bit of authority assertion, a power play. It felt pretty personal and it felt very petty. The response from colleagues when they found out was very supportive (and in some instances somewhat aggressive towards management thinking).
Let’s fast forward about 9 months. I’m at Travelport Locomote. Many of my colleagues know that I am part of ETA. They have asked questions, chatted about what we do, been genuinely supportive. I mention that I will be presenting at LAST Conference. The interest and enthusiasm is enormous. I”m provided with 2 days to attend the conference. No need to hit my annual leave. Our Sales people get me a new Travelport Locomote T-shirt (proud to wear it). I’m asked if I can provide some photos from the presentation. When I do the photos are:
Later this month Lee and I will be delivering our talk at my office. I’m really looking forward to this. It will be a thank you for the support from a great group of people that form an incredible and supportive company.
When I resigned from my previous employer I hoped, and really believed, I was going to somewhere much better. Six months on and the proof could not be clearer. I’m yet to see any sign of a stick and there is lots of support and encouragement from Management. It hasn’t been without struggles but I worked through those with company support. Toxic relationships linger, in damaging and near invisible ways. That’s a story for my next blog.
Diversity is a thing, at least I think it’s a thing. I spend a bunch of hours each week teaching people on the autism spectrum how to test software. I like to think of that as a way I help to contribute to diversity within the software testing community. I like that some sections of the test community (the IT industry in general really) are working hard to increase the number of women participating in conferences and to raise the recognition of what women bring to software development. Keep in mind that both examples are dimensions of diversity not diversity in its entirety.
When we talk about diversity I think we are probably talking about diversity and inclusion. Should we change the reference to be more specific? I mean, we really want participation as well, right? The primary goal, in my opinion, is not increasing the diversity of the crowd attending. The primary goal is to increase the diversity of those presenting at conferences. Providing opportunities for people to tell stories from many different perspectives.
When I said “diversity is a thing” I meant that in a good way. There are people aware of its importance, how it can reach out to new, otherwise excluded, or marginalised, groups of people and give them a voice and recognition. In this way, we build communities that radiate positive energy and a multitude of perspectives when it comes to problem solving and creative thinking. An analogy here is to look at basic animal behaviour. In-breeding causes a narrowing of the available gene pool. Keep the pool tight enough for long enough and once strong, healthy animals become endangered. The limited gene pool, given some time, will begin to amplify genetic imperfections. I see diversity and inclusion as one way we are able to keep the “genetic thought pool” vibrant and healthy. A way we actively guard against group think and nodding acceptance of ideas that should be challenged.
Out of a drive for greater awareness we have concepts such as the diversity charter at http://diversitycharter.org/. I’m neither anti nor pro initiatives such as these. It calls out that we should think about diversity, that’s a good thing. The charter itself is necessarily broad. You can sign the charter, display the logo on your website. Theoretically, all good stuff. Hold that thought for a moment.
“Diversity is a thing” can also be a negative. Encouraging diversity and participation takes work. It requires thinking, active decision making and being able to justify your actions. Making decisions and justifying them when questioned really shouldn’t be an issue when testers are involved. Heck we do this every day. I’d argue that within the CDT community there is an intense focus on this aspect. CDT wears critical thinking and accountability as badges of honour.
Recently, on LinkedIn I saw a statement that “we take diversity seriously”. It was above a link to Smita Mishra’s talk on diversity at the Quality Software Australia conference. No other “poster” I saw for the QSA conference mentioned the importance of diversity. I found no diversity statement on the website (although I did eventually find a link to diversitycharter.org hidden amongst the media partners). I suppose at this point I could drop in a snapshot of the LinkedIn post to the Australian Testers LinkedIn page. Instead here’s a quick summary:
My initial query was to ask what diversity actually means to the organisers of the conference. It was hard not to notice that of 21 conference speakers, only 5 were female. There were no females running any of the workshops. Diversity is wider than just male/female ratios, no argument from me on that, but when you feature that statement above a female speaker……
Two days passed, no response so I posted a follow up to LinkedIn. Of particular interest to me was that I could easily find pages of legal documents protecting the conference’s rights and interests. It was not so easy to find anything about why “we take diversity seriously”.
Mike Lyle, one of the speakers at the conference, responded to me. Thanks Mike. I appreciate you took the time but you didn’t address my questions. Actually, you couldn’t because I wanted to understand in what ways diversity is important to the conference organisers. You can’t answer the question because, as far as I’m aware, you’re not an organiser of the conference.
As a final shot at getting a response I noticed that @AussieTesters had tweeted “we take diversity seriously” (@AussieTesters has direct links to organisation of the conference). So I responded to the tweet asking if I could get an answer to my question. This resulted in me:
I find this reaction somewhat strange. I can guess at why the response took the form it did due to some history, but this should not have been the reaction to the question I asked. It is a fair question. It should have been easy to answer as well. Diversity can be modelled in so many ways that a thoughtful response should be pretty simple. If the conference, through its organisers, really believe that “diversity is important to us” then stating why should be pretty matter of fact. In fact the chance to get your views out there should be a welcome opportunity. A chance to show that you thought about the issues, how you feel about them and talk about how you incorporated this into the conference program. Being unable or unwilling to do this gives me the impression that diversity might not be as important to this conference as they are suggesting.
Beyond this though, the reaction to block a fair and reasonable question, to simply dodge it in the simplest way possible, smacks of double standards.
In 2016 a couple of Melbourne based testers started up a test conference called Tconf. The conference stood out mostly because it was incredibly affordable and had a decent number of tracks. The tracks being offered were only of passing interest to me at the time. I let it roll in favour of spending my dollars on other things. I didn’t think much more of it until a blog post written by Colin Cherry (https://itesting.com.au/2016/10/21/diversity-still-a-dream-in-software-testing/). Colin wrote about Tconf having no women speakers and the lack of consideration about the importance of diversity. It was a pretty “full on” blog. I agree with the diversity message, not so much with the way it was delivered. It is what it is. Colins blog received a number of comments, some supporting, some questioning. There was one particular response supporting Colin, which now stands out as particularly interesting. Note that the bolding is mine. I have bolded the sections which Raj picked out of a response to Colin’s blog. The non-bold text are Raj’s responses.
Not sure I understand the point you’re trying to prove with your boycott.
– Nick, I just spoke to Colin to understand his viewpoint. The point that he is trying to prove with his boycott is that he cares about diversity and that he is disturbed with the fact that the event in question has completely ignored this important aspect.
The event does seem a little lean on the diversity side, at least in terms of the speakers, but I hadn’t even noticed until you mentioned it. Maybe I’m a bad person.
– A little lean? Sure?
Perhaps the talks put forward by these males were of such high quality they couldn’t turn any of them down.
– Perhaps most of the speakers ‘are’ the organisers and mates. If that is the case then who is going to really make a call about the quality of talks?
Perhaps there was a shortage and the organizers simply went with the speakers they had available at their disposal.
– Perhaps there was never a call for papers and the organisers decided to deliver talks without even considering the diversity aspects of the programme.
Can’t we just live and let live here?
– Absolutely. We would love to do so. In order to live we do have to care about others’ living as well. Like talking about abolishing poverty doesn’t abolish it, ignoring or hiding behind ignorance about diversity doesn’t help in improving diversity.
Neither Colin nor I have anything against the individuals who are speaking at this event. I have met many of them and they are all good people. I would want to give benefit of doubt to people who have organised this event but we should know that they are not new to organising events. Colin has raised an important point here and has reminded all of us about something we forget about or don’t care about. We must be thankful to him.
There’s much in the above response that interests me now. Especially, and I quote from above
“……..ignoring or hiding behind ignorance about diversity doesn’t help in improving diversity.”
That statement has a very hollow ring to it in the light of recent actions from QSA. I think if you are willing to question others then you should also be prepared to be questioned. If you make statements about the importance of something, be prepared to answer questions. Claims without evidence don’t count. If, as a community we are serious about diversity we need to be accountable for demonstrating our commitment to it. Linking to a broad charter about diversity is not diversity, it’s just a link to someone else’s words about their desires.
I believe in the value of diversity. As I noted at the start of this blog, I spend quite a bit of time (all of it unpaid) to help support neurodiversity within testing. I value what diversity, in its many forms, can contribute to the testing community. I’m glad that I know a lot of people that also share a genuine interest in growing diversity in testing and more broadly in IT. This is a subject that deserves thought and careful consideration. Linking to a charter is nice but a charter is a guide, it is not a set of actions. Much in the same way that businesses hitch themselves to the “Agile” tag. That doesn’t make you Agile, your actions are what matters. Diversity is the same. A link to a charter without being able to explain how you implement the sentiments of the charter makes diversity a throwaway concept. Diversity is far too important to allow this to happen to it. If you are serious about diversity then make it clear the ways in which you support it, what is it that your conference (or business) does that meets dimensions of diversity. Walking away from a conversation does nothing to strengthen diversity.
As we move from 2016 to 2017 there are a couple of things that really excite me about 2017.
I start a new job with Travelport Locomote. This company produces software for corporate travel management. It’s a new domain for me, and that’s interesting. More than that, this is a company that believes that people matter, and acts that way. I’m looking forward to working with a new group of Testers and Developers. I’m excited about being given a role that will enable me to really utilise my teaching, coaching and mentoring skills. There’s a lot for me to learn, that’s really cool because I have a high degree of confidence that the people I’ll be working with will support that learning. We’ll help improve each other’s ability to produce a quality experience for our customers.
Across 2016 I have been working with Lee Hawkins (@therockertester) and EPIC Assist (http://epicassist.org/au/) to produce an introduction to software testing. This training will be aimed at helping people that have Aspergers Syndrome. Together we are hoping to get people sufficiently skilled to find employment. Lee and I will be developing and delivering the course with, to steal from the Beatles, “a little help from our friends”. EPIC Assist are helping identify people to attend the training and are also seeking out employment opportunities. They are also funding costs such as a training room, training materials, snacks, etc.
In 2017 this work will come to life as the EPIC Testability Academy (ETA). I’ve had this idea bouncing around in my head for a while but needed to wait until I had bandwidth and a group to support the idea. EPIC Assist is the group and Lee is the bloke that put his hand up before I finished outlining the idea to him. Working with Lee, in my experience, is incredibly easy. He is a very positive guy, humble and people focused. He’s also got a lot fo testing experience. William Elliott and Zach Zaborny, from EPIC, have been brilliant to work with, they are so positive and supportive. As a team we “clicked” from our first meeting.
Zach is an author. I highly recommend his book – Education of An Aspie: College Through My Eyes
For Lee and myself this is a “giving back to the community” initiative. We are providing all our time for free. While we make zero dollars through this initiative we expect we will learn plenty and have a lot of fun. Well-worn as this term might be, for us, it really is about community building. The people that come along to ETA will not have any previous exposure to software testing (although they more than likely test without knowing it). Initially we want to build some confidence and engagement. Finding bugs that are not too hard to detect would be useful. Of course, this needs to taper because “easy bugs” are one thing but reality is another and so we need to progressively ramp up the challenge and engage the type of thinking we want our students to embrace.
This is where we seek assistance. It would be an enormous help if you, or your friends, the people that make the testing community what it is, could contribute ideas around software that would be suitable for ETA. It can be alpha, beta, web based, hosted, local instal, anything really. If you would like to be part of ETA, even though you might be on the other side of the world, or this continent, the “welcome mat” is awaiting, the door open. You can contact me through the blog site message function with any ideas you might have. Anything you can provide will be really appreciated.
So that’s it folks. 2016 is rapidly drawing to a close. It’s been a year of some incredible highs (I’ve a learnt a lot and have developed some very strong friendships) and sad lows (deaths in the family). As always time marches on. 2017 is looking exciting for me, I hope it brings the same sense of excitement to you.
Many, many years ago I went to college and graduated as a teacher. I was going to say “became a teacher” but that would be wrong. College gives you a level of preparation to become a teacher but you don’t actually become one until you spend time in the classroom developing the requisite skills and flexibility.
Reasonably recently my wife completed a teaching degree. It was interesting to see how little the ideas and theories have advanced. I had the occasional giggle when my wife would talk about a new theory in teaching. I’d ask questions, discuss it a bit and then offer “I learnt that stuff, it’s just got a different name now”. Not that this phenomena is limited to the education industry.
I struggled remaining interested in much of my time at college. Teaching is an exciting career. Every day, every child, different challenges. College focused too much on theory for mine. The psychology was fascinating, not much else was. I’ve long held a view that an apprenticeship approach would be better for teachers. Learn by doing and experiencing. I suspect this approach would also retain those that really want to, and can, teach. For as long as I can remember getting your first teaching job has been more about academic achievement than desire to do a great job and a love of the profession. I know too many Teachers that “fell into” a teaching job and have just stayed on, not a lot of passion. I also know Teachers that are brimming with passion and desire to “do right” by their students. Again, this is not something that is restricted to the education industry.
The reason I’m writing this blog is not to reminisce about a former job and studies of old. Rather it is to talk about something a lecturer said that has never left me. Moreover it has been an enormous help and guided me when working with others. I honestly wish I could remember the name of the lecturer so I could attribute, but I don’t. Maybe he borrowed it from someone else in the same way.
“When you teach, bridge from the known to the unknown”
Having set this up I guess I need to explain why this is meaningful to me. Across my years in IT I have been a learner and a teacher. Often at the same time. I don’t “fly my own flag” very often, I prefer to let people make their own judgements based on what they have seen me do. Having said that I’m pretty capable when it comes to teaching, coaching and mentoring people (I see each of these three as different activities). I know when to be more and less directive. I know how to guide people to discovery and get an enormous buzz out of people suddenly “getting it”. Back in my days as a primary school teacher we called them “magic moments”. Those moments when you can “see the light bulb illuminate”. I don’t have a lot of formal certification (beyond graduating college) but I have a lot of skill built up by doing, driven by a passion to help people get better at what they are doing.
When I work with people, and they are new to what I am going to work on with them, the first thing I do is gain an understanding of what they know that is relevant to the task at hand. Sometimes you need to dig deep, sometimes not, but this is important. The first thing I get here is trust then engagement (and I think that is the order in which it occurs) . I’m not dumping stuff on them and expecting them to keep up. I’m building an understanding and, usually along the way, increasing their feelings of safety. So in finding the “known” I also find their comfort zone. The comfort zone is important. People feel safe there, they understand the territory, it’s demands and how to react. The “known” side of the bridge is the comfort zone.
It’s important to know where someone “is at” if you want to take them somewhere and have them enjoy the journey. If they know very little that is relevant, or to put it another way, their comfort zone is small, that’s an important detail if you want to avoid over stressing your student.Once you know what to link to you can start constructing the bridge that will lead to new understandings, new skills, new capabilities. Every session I run with people starts with establishing where they “are at”. This is really important to establish what might not have been clearly understood in a previous session or sessions. Always offer “revisit” options.
So you’ve made a link, you’ve got initial buy in and enthusiasm, the journey starts. Think about how great bridges are built. Slowly, carefully, “one plank at a time”. All those little planks build spans. Eventually the spans join up and we have a bridge. Don’t rush, allow time to develop understanding, practice, failure and learning, deep learning when appropriate. Rushing through the building phase may leave you with a bridge that is shoddy, useful only for a short time, if it all, and one that is prone to crack and fall apart with minimal pressure. That’s just wasted effort and setting people up for failure and misery.
I hope I haven’t made teaching and coaching sound easy, that would be wrong. You need to make decisions about where to start, how fast you can build that bridge. There are ways to do that but none are foolproof. Ultimately, as the teacher or coach, you need to make decisions and revise those decisions based on feedback.
In my experience I have met many people that claim they can teach and coach. Maybe they can. I know for sure though that I have heard many more people make these claims than I have seen “build a bridge”.
I drafted this blog a little while back. It has been sitting around waiting for me to come back and complete it. During my “muddling around” phase the following appeared in my twitter feed
A graphic was included with this tweet I have inserted a copy below. The timing of this was incredible and I love that it is based on the same analogy as my blog.
Thanks for dropping by.
I often hear how testing is part of life. I even use that, or related references, myself. Over the past few days I’ve been able to observe life and testing intersecting in a setting that is not part of my “everyday life”. This story starts at 12:30am, Saturday morning. My Wife wakes me up complaining of pain that is radiating into her chest. It is a heavy pain. We have a local service where we can phone a doctor for an after hours visit. This is proposed, I decide not.
Heuristic – this could be a heart attack. I can’t guess here. Criticality is high, the consequences of a bad call could be extreme. Therefore an unknown wait time for a doctor is pushed to one side.
I place a call, an ambulance is dispatched. Now I’m being coached by the dispatcher. Suddenly I’m part of a team. I’m being asked questions, I’m providing responses. Then I’m rummaging through our drugs cabinet looking for asprin. It strikes me that I’m suddenly part of a new team, we are, for all intents and purposes, pair testing. We are not sitting in the same location but we are working together, looking for signs that might give specific clues about what is going on.
Models – the dispatcher is building a model through our convesation, looking for certain key attributes of a problem. There were some indicators that this was not a heart attack but, at no time, was it dismissed. The possibility remained until proven otherwise through evidence.
The Paramedics that came to our place were incredible. One immediately went to my wife, the other stayed slightly distant. The one that went to my wife worked patiently and methodically through a list of questions. Blood pressure taken, pads attached and heart monitor engaged. Drugs for pain relief. Thinking back on this the Paramedics teamwork reminded me of airline pilots. One flying the aircraft, the other controlling communications but always as a team. When you are asking questions, hooking up machines you can’t really observe, but your buddy standing off a little can. This is important information that can be shared to benefit your patient. This reminded me of the notion of critical distance and its importance.
My wife and I received a “report” from the Paramedics. “We don’t think this is a heart attack but we can’t be completely sure. We suggest we take you to a hospital with a cardiac unit”
Through all this I failed to observe any detailed lists (Paramedic “test cases”) but I did observe lots of discussion, cross checking of ideas, checklists and medical attention. Each question was an experiment designed to reveal new information and a better understanding. We also got useful, easy to understand feedback (we could think of this as a test report) that gave us information upon which we could make choices. Risk assessment activities and risk mitigation options were quite evident.
The decision to go to hospital wasn’t a difficult one. What followed was a night in a major hospitals emergency department and a battery of tests. The handover in this situation, from Paramedics to Hospital, is interesting. Short, sharp, focussed, clear. The essential facts. History of the situation and what treatment has been given. It’s clear this has been done before but it is also clear that this process is about passing important information quickly so the patient can be given high quality care quickly. This process is lean.
The tests managed to rule out a heart attack but they were unable to identify the specific source of pain . I’m sure they had theories but access to tests that would assist diagnosis were not available at the time. We were issued with a letter to enable the other tests to be run two days later. We left the hospital knowing there was an undetected “bug” but, with a belief that the issue was not life threatening.
Lots of tests and checks were run during our 8 hours in Emergency. It’s a good reminder that tests can be quite specific to highlighting specific problems. While heart problems were ruled out those same tests could not determine the actual problem. Determining the best tests for the context is critical to success. Makes me think about the execution of test cases “because we always run them” or similar reasons.
Let’s skip forward about 36 hours. We have another large hospital within 10 minutes of our house. We are sitting in its Emergency Department. The pain my wife has been suffering has escalated significantly. The yet to be diagnosed “bug” has made its presence known and its severity has increased. The Triage Nurse goes through a series of checks, establishes history. We are pushed through to a treatment room in no time at all. It’s familiar territory, questions from doctors and nurses, establishing vital statistics, ECG, blood tests.
Even though the previous trip to hospital ruled out heart problems the searing, intense pain pushing into the chest, has doctors re-exploring this as primary concern. Given the really serious nature of a heart attack, reconfirming that a heart attack is not in progress, makes sense. Let’s not anchor to previous results when things might have changed and there are indications to support having another look. In a busy, stressful environment it could be easy to bias your investigations.
After a while the possibility of heart attack is again ruled out. That’s a relief bit there is clearly something amiss. Inspite of a massive dose of painkillers (including morphine) the pain remains extreme. The focus now moves to a gastrointestinal related issue. The tests change accordingly. A CT scan is organised, and there it is, the gall bladder is in a mess. The doctors want further details, confirmation and a basis on which they can figure out the best way to attack the problem. An ultra sound provides more evidence, further details about the specifics of the problem.
Now that testing has revealed the “bug” the process switches to an evidence gathering phase. What information can we gather to give us the best means of solving the problem? What other issues might there be? What do we need to prepare for? How will we know when we have been successful? How quickly do we need to move to optimise outcomes for the patient?
It turns out that good practice in this context is gall bladder removal using “key hole” surgery. The real interesting bit is that the surgeons felt it would be a good idea to have a look around while operating just to make sure there were no other issues that might not have shown up in the scans (or perhaps were hinted but not highlighted). I know about exploratory surgery as an approach, I’ve just never thought about it when the “bug” has been identified. As it turned out they found an umbilical hernia and repaired that as well.
Keeping your mind open to possibilities, drawing on past experience, heuristics, models, talking to colleagues can lead to the discovery of “off script surprises”. We didn’t expect this approach but getting that hernia fixed delighted us and represents a lot of value.
I have no doubt that as I reflect more on what has happened that I will discover more parallels and even find ideas to experiment with in my work. I cannot help but see the benefits of teamwork and open, clear communication. There were no signs of panic or rush. There was a lot of questioning, critical thinking, exploring options and making decisions using various forms of feedback. Many areas of software development seem to fight these becoming meaningful attributes. We really do need to examine and overcome the resistance. If hospitals operated like many software developers and spoke about these attributes but never really valued them….. I can’t imagine what the mortality rate might be.
What I saw in action looked a lot like Agile. Do doctors and nurses think of themselves as working in an agile manner or do they just do things that optimise quality of care and patient outcomes? Perhaps that is two ways of saying the same thing?
There are bad experiences and good experiences but each gives us the opportunity to take away things we can learn from. I think I’ll be debriefing, and learning from, this one for a while.
Finally – the magnificent work of a group of surgeons and nurses meant that my wife returned home less than 24 hours after surgery. Recovery is on track and we are all grateful for the expertise that, for the most part, we take for granted.
There are many pleasures being involved in software development. I’ve been involved as a Business Analyst, Support Desk Lead and a Tester. Working with smart people, working with people that are passionate about doing a good job, meeting with likeminded people that enjoying discussing how things could be better (and actually do things to try and make that “better” happen). Of all my favourite things though nothing beats hearing that analogy that equates software development work to manufacturing or building. It just never gets old (you’re picking up on sarcasm at this point – I hope). As far as I can tell the discussion always seems to pop up in relation to estimation (and/or cost) and is often accompanied by the “oh shit” panic of a project in a bit of trouble. You know the sort of scenario:
Manager: I don’t understand the estimates we give. When I ask for a house to be built I get given a price, the house gets built and delivered within the date timeframes.
You: They’ve built that house before, right? I mean you’re asking for a new house but that house has been built before for others. You’ve seen the house, been in a display model of it. You’re asking for a copy of something that exists.
Manager: I don’t get your point. We’ve built software before. Our software exists.
You: We build software because the software doesn’t exist. Our clients ask us to build something new into the existing system. They have neither seen or experienced that functionality before in our system, and neither have we. We are not comparing like for like when we discuss software creation and house building. Perhaps you could ask your builder to add a swimming pool to your lounge room when they are half way through the build.
……and so the discussion goes until the inevitable conclusion where the analogy lives to fight another day.
When we compare thought/knowledge work (software development) to the manufacturing or building analogy it is accepted, by many, as a flawed comparison. That we are comparing “apples and oranges”. We can’t compare thinking to a machine stamping out widgets. When we are doing this we are comparing, what I’ll call “determined repeatability”, to the creation of something new. “Determined repeatability” is possible because we have spent time developing approaches, formulas, processes and formed them into a chain that produces what we (more specifically, our clients) desire. We can continue to process these widgets infinitum (as long as market forces maintain a demand). But market forces can be fickle, so can resourcing inputs. What happens if one of these changes and our processing chain loses its “determined repeatability”? What if the widget needs an update with the addition of new attributes? I wonder, is there a useful analogy if we change the target area of the analogy focus? I think when we compare the creation of software to manufacturing a widget we miss that the widget required research and development. Before the widget there wasn’t a widget. Someone had to spend time and money creating it. Now that the widget requires new features the “cut and stamp” process is disrupted. We have lost “determined repeatability” In this phase we potentially have a useful analogy with software development. In this phase of manufacturing we see thought, iteration, experimentation, exploration, failure, learning and finally a product that can be produced “cookie cutter” fashion.
I like aviation, actually more than like. It mystifies me even though I have a basic understanding of the forces at work. I can (and sometimes do) spend hours watching the big birds take off and land. To me it is a graceful blend of man and nature working together (leaving aside the engine emissions debate). The Wright brothers famous flight was on December 17 1903. On April 2005, a jet that stretched further than the Wrights’ first flight, took its own first flight. In slightly under a century it is a mighty impressive demonstration of human endeavour. If you’re interested, you can buy an A380-800. The average list price for one of these is a cool USD432.6 MILLION. (Personally I’m thinking of spending on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. I can get 2 of those for the price of a single A380). I guess what I’m getting at here is that I can get a very sophisticated, highly technically complex aircraft for a known price and a known delivery date. As much as this sounds like it underplays the technology, at this point, the A380 is produced “cookie cutter” style, it’s a known quantity. When we compare software development to this, it “fails to fly”(pardon the pun).
Now let’s go back in time a bit the A380 does not exist. There are potential customers but the aircraft is not a reality. Let’s also remember this is not the first aircraft either. This is true for the Airbus company and a large and relatively thriving industry. You could be slightly flippant and say “they are just making a variation of what has been done before” (ever heard that before about software development – I have). There is no shortage of experience and knowledge but, and this is important, they are going to a place they have not gone before. This will be the largest commercial aircraft ever. Even if it wasn’t distinguishable on just that aspect it will be made with new age materials and technology. Some have been used before, some are new.
So how did it all go? You might know the answer, or have some knowledge of the situation, but in summary. Not so well. Let’s start with some headliners.
Originally scheduled for delivery in 2006, the aircraft’s entry into service was delayed by almost 2 years and the project was several billion dollars over budget.
There must have been some fascinating boardroom discussions as the project travelled along. I think it is worth re-iterating that this is a company that builds incredible aircraft, they employee knowledgeable, capable people. They have a history of building aircraft. They have a strong reputation. How could this go wrong?
At the heart of the problems were difficulties integrating the complex wiring system needed to operate the aircraft with the metal airframe through which the wiring needed to thread. With 530Km of wires, cables and wiring harnesses weave their way throughout the airframe. With more than 100,000 wires and 40,300 connectors performing 1,150 separate functions, the Airbus A380 has the most complex electrical system Airbus had ever designed. As the first prototype (registration F-WWOW) was being built in Toulouse France, engineers began to realize that they had a problem. Wires and their harnesses had been manufactured to specification, but during installation the wires turned out to be too short. Even though the cables were at times just a few centimetres too short, in an aircraft you can’t simply tug a cable to make it fit. As construction of the prototype continued Airbus management slowly came to the realization that the issue was not an isolated problem and that short wires was a pervasive issue throughout the design.
A single miscalculation. There were reasons behind the miscalculation (a chain of errors), but none the less, the impacts were really something. It also meant “back to the drawing board”, let’s examine and understand the failure, let’s find other ways to meet our objective. Who the hell saw that coming? The answer is nobody. If somebody had seen it coming it would have been prevented before it became a major problem.
I can’t prevent people wanting to make comparisons between software development and manufacturing or building. That’s beyond my control. What I can have some control over is my response. That response will now be to acknowledge there might be some validity but change the focus to the development phase, where there are similarities, and not the completed “cookie cutter” production cycle where there are few, if any, similarities. If you want to make a comparison between production line output and software development, then maybe we should be discussing the physical delivery of the completed code after completion of development. That just might be an equivalent analogy with stamping out widgets.
Thanks for dropping by
A big thank you to Lee Hawkins for his review and feedback
I had a conversation today that many of you have probably had a t some time. Not necessarily this conversation but one that is a parallel experience.
I overheard a discussion that had a Tester talking to a new Developer in our company. The conversation included “we work with fixed scope projects”. That statement made my ears open up and my response centre kick into gear. So I challenged my colleague on his statement. His response – “we know what that means here, we use it in a general sense”. I couldn’t leave it here, I was still curious and also wondering if maybe I could make him think a little differently.
I ask “which of those words do we use in a general sense?”. The response “Well you know, we all know what it means”. “I’m not sure I do. My understanding of fixed means it is locked down. My understanding of scope is what we intend to develop. To me that means our projects do not change scope, at all, from start to completion. Can you remember one of those?” It turns out my colleague really couldn’t recall a project fitting that profile. So I asked again why we would use language that doesn’t reflect reality. Again I get the response “but we all know what it really means”.
My colleague has a mortgage on his house (like most of us). I asked him if he was to fix his home loan rate would he see that as having a specific meaning or a generally understood meaning. Would he be OK if the bank decided to increase his interest rate above the fixed rate because they believed fixed was generally understood to mean the rate could move? Suddenly there is a change in the meaning of fixed, “No I wouldn’t be OK with that, it’s fixed”. “So does fixed have a different meaning between the two contexts?” I ask. “Not that I can think of” comes the response.
Then my colleague offers up the following. “So what we really have is current scope”. Mentally I punch the air. “Given that what we start with is not what we end up pushing out, current scope seems a fair description”. The conversation finishes but I can see my colleague tossing the conversation through his mind. I’m happy because I’ve challenged someone to think differently. My colleague might decide, after further thought, that I’m full of crap. He might decide to reconsider other “things we all know what it means”. I hope he does but that’s his choice.
When I do stuff like this I find it interesting. There are generally two kinds of reactions.
1 – this is cool, let’s discuss
2 – stop being so damned picky, you know what I mean
That second reaction annoys me a touch. If people want to take that path then it’s their choice. I’m all for choice so I’m not rallying against that. The annoyance is that “we all know what it means” causes endless problems in specifications. It causes needless error when people just assume a word means something because “it can only have one meaning”. There are ways and means of minimising this type of error, many seem adverse to listening or reading attentively enough to enable questioning possible ambiguity or misconception. Perhaps others just don’t see this thinking and analysis as part of their job. Some years back I was leading a team of testers that really did not value the importance of clarifying statements, getting a deep rather than shallow understanding. I introduced a challenge – find ambiguities in the daily newspaper. We found some absolute classics, had a lot of fun doing it and reinforced how language can be quite deceptive. Suddenly (well not suddenly, over time) the group became better at finding areas of “weak understanding” because they were aware of what they might look like (we spoke about things other than ambiguity) and why they might be important.
It might “only be words” but those words carry meaning and they carry a cost.Not just dollars but reputation and client satisfaction. Shallow understanding is easy “we all know that”, deep understanding requires work and effort, questioning, critical thinking. Anyone can paddle around in the shallow end. Be different.
Thanks for dropping by.
I’m lucky enough to work with a company that has always had a high cultural diversity amongst its people. I find it interesting how that diversity of backgrounds can influence and broaden thinking. Sometimes it directly influences through solution approaches, other times it is through story telling. I was born in Australia, English is my native language. I have tremendous respect for people who are fluent in multiple languages. I’ve tried learning other languages and really struggled. I was fortunate enough to spend a few days in Paris some years back. At that point I realised that I could learn another language if I had the right motivation. The reason I mention this is because many of the stories that get told are about learning English and trying to communicate as new arrivals. I love these stories because they are told with great enthusiasm and humour. There is always something to think about. A language I take for granted, it’s good sometimes to have a reminder that not everybody has that same grasp.
At work today a young lady I work with used the word “literally” several times. Just messing around I challenged each use of “literally”. While chatting about this it reminded me of a personal story. Many, many years ago I was at college studying to be a primary school teacher (primary school covers a child for the first 7 years of their formal education starting around age 5). Part of the student experience, indeed required professional development, is to go on teaching rounds. These are both exciting, and initially, just a tad nerve-wracking. I guess it is just like any new experience that has real meaning for you.
From memory this was my second teaching round in my first year. This was the first time we were given the opportunity to plan and take classes. It was limited to a handful of 30 minute sessions with feedback from the supervising teacher. At this point the teacher was always in the room with you to lend support if needed. I don’t remember my supervising teachers name (let’s call her Mrs Pleasant) but I do remember her, I can still see her face. She was from the era of teachers that were teaching when I was in primary school. She was very supportive, generous with feedback and able to deliver constructive criticism in a very non confronting way (I discovered on future teaching rounds that this lady possessed a rare skill). The school day closed, I was going home to finalise my preparation for the next days class and Mrs Pleasant says “don’t be alarmed but the school Principal sits in on student classes and he is going to sit in on yours tomorrow. He is very supportive but he doesn’t like the word OK”. I thank her for the heads up knowing that the troublesome “OK” rarely features in my vocabulary.
The Principal was pretty much from the same era as Mrs Pleasant. An old school gentleman. I didn’t see him a lot but I did enjoy our chats when we had them. It was only while thinking about this today that I realised how magnificent it is to find someone with that passion. He had been in the education system for more years than I’d been alive but he still wanted to see the “new blood” and provide input to their growth. That’s a rare and valuable passion, that, given a second chance, would have been better used. Sometimes opportunity slips past you and you just don’t realise it.
Back to the story….Next morning usual routines. We get to first break and my lesson is straight up after the break. I’m prepared and relaxed. So much so that I meander down to the staff room and grab a cup of tea and have a chat. While I’m there Mrs Pleasant comes up to me and provides a reminder “just remember to watch your use of OK”. I nod, smile and thank her. I go back to the classroom, we get the children back inside, the Principal arrives, I start my lesson. I’m amazed how relaxed I feel, I know the lesson plan well and what I want to achieve so am sure the preparation gave me confidence.
Now it gets weird. I noticed that I had said “OK”. I damn near never use that word and not in formal settings. I press on, let’s not use that again. Another “OK” pops out, what?? I think I might have caught one further utterance. Finally the lesson ends, I feel pretty good. The word that shall not be spoken popped out a couple of times but that’s alright (I hope). So the debrief starts. In short pretty good effort, here’s some things to be aware of, etc, etc. And then……”do you realise that you said OK 30 times?”. A this point I might have sought a place to hide, meekly mumbled some weird disclaimer or perhaps thought about lodging an application with the Guinness Book of Records. I do remember a massive feeling of disbelief.
So what the hell happened? It’s a lesson in people getting you to focus on what not to do rather than focusing on what you should do. Good coaches know this and use it when working with people. I remember attending several workshops held by Allan Parker (who is an excellent presenter, very entertaining) where he spoke about this phenomenon. If you focus on what not to do there is a strong chance you will do exactly what you don’t want to do. His example was your average weekend golfer. There is a lake on the left hand side of the fairway. The golfer tees up his golf ball and thinks “don’t go left, don’t go left”. He swings and during the follow through watches his golf ball sail left and make an impressive splash into the water. The pro golfer, in the same situation, tees up his ball, knows there is a lake to the left and then picks a target either centre or right side of the fairway. This golfer is focusing on what target to hit not what to avoid. No guarantees this one won’t mess up his swing and find the water but he has set himself up for success rather than failure avoidance.
How often, at work, do we “tee up the ball” and then focus on not going left? More than we should, I suspect, and possibly more than we know. If there is history of management pointing out errors and focusing on them what is our strategy? It’s hard to focus on a positive target when the message that is constantly running past you is about what you shouldn’t do. We can easily, and unknowingly, make avoiding error our primary driving goal. How de we call this out and change it? Well that’s a case by case consideration and probably another blog on strategy. For all that I’m pretty sure that focusing on “what not to do” is not OK.
Published – LinkedIn – March 3, 2016
I find it interesting that hybrid development structures are becoming such a hot topic. A steady stream of articles are appearing to justify the hybrid landing point. My problem with the acceptance of a hybrid model is that it ignores the reasons why hybrid became the adopted model. I’ve been part of an agile transformation that is now at “hybrid”. Based on current available evidence this isn’t a place where will stop, revisit what happened, make changes and move back to the agile transformation. This is it folks, this is our new way of doing things. This is not an unusual story. I’ve spoken to numerous colleagues that have been becalmed attempting to navigate the same waters..
The failure to transform is not a reason to accept adopting a hybrid model. It’s actually a pretty bad reason to accept being hybrid. Agile fails for numerous reasons. Stopping at hybrid accepts and validates the failure points rather than exploring and resolving. Moving to Agile is not about transforming the Development department. It is fundamentally about changing the business. It is a change of mindset, it is a change of culture. Waterfall seems to be an excellent model for covering up dysfunction in a company. The “guess the requirements” game followed by rounds of rework and argument, the leveraging of change requests, the reliance on legal documents (not denying the need for the documents, just the way they can be used to defend deliverables or practices). These all serve to generate a layer of noise that masks poor practices. Transforming to agile practices simply lay these bare.
Facing down dysfunctional behavior is not easy. My experience (this includes talking to colleagues) is that the biggest layer of dysfunction anchors to a company’s Management layer. Many Managers acquire their role not because of their ability to deal with people but because they were good at the technical aspects of their job. In other words, “you understand what it takes to deliver a project, you can manage your role, by extension you can manage others”. That’s bad reading of a persons capability and often robs the business of a good, productive person. More companies than not assume that Managers have the “required skills”. More likely they have the mindset of their previous Managers –predominant command and control. Transforming to agile you ask Managers to give up command and control, to move away from micro-management. You ask them to hand power across to teams of people. Do we really wonder why transformation might fail? Leaders, on the other hand, will welcome the transformation power shift. Why? Because they have never been in to the command and control style, they have always been about empowering their people. Transformation will have traditional Managers staring “ïn to the abyss” wondering what they will do next.
There are numerous factors that may stall an agile transformation. I Have heard little to convince me that many companies really consider this, how many will present a real risk. Before you start transforming understand what is in front of you. Even with careful planning you will encounter the unexpected. If you hit the point of “being hybrid” don’t stop there. Inspect, adapt, move forward. Do not accept hybrid as “the destination”. More than anything else, if you are hybrid, do not tell others you are Agile. You’re not Agile. Saying you are is a lie. You are lying to yourself and your clients. Hybrid is to Agile what a VW Beetle is to a Porsche. So for all those that say it’s Ok to be hybrid, that’s cool, but only if you set out to be hybrid. Did you?
Test Magazine, May 2016
Co-authors – Lee Hawkins, Rajesh Mathur
Testing Management – It’s Not What You Might Think (Thinking Isn’t Optional)
One of the ironies of the software testing industry is that a lot of people outside the industry (and also a lot of people inside the industry) believe that testing is easy. Testing can be easy for certain software products. For example, applications which meet the following assumptions:
Such applications are usually free, open-source or come as freebies with other software products. An example is Notepad which has minimal functionality and comes free with other Microsoft products.
On the other hand, testing can be very complex. Think about all other software that you use or interact with, or depend on, while at home or work, while driving, while traveling by air etc. The list of complex software we interact with is almost endless. However, when many people talk about software testing, they generalize the subject and call testing easy. This generalization naturally leads to the belief that anyone can test. If you share this belief, please read on. The authors suggest you read “Perfect Software and Other Illusions about Software Testing” written by Jerry Weinberg. This might change your perceptions and thinking.
Since many people believe testing is easy, some testers or technical people we meet also feel that test management is easy and that anyone can do it. Most of the people who say such things do not really understand what they mean by testing or test management. It is very important to understand what we mean when we use these terms. In the words of Michael Bolton,”Words are powerful tools for understanding and clarifying ideas, but like all tools, they must be used skillfully to achieve their purposes and to avoid trouble.” The authors of this article mostly use the vocabulary of the Rapid Software Testing Namespace.
Here are some of the myths of test management that we have often heard from test professionals. In this article we will examine some of these.
Test management, like any other management discipline, requires a balanced and relevant skillset. Here are some of the skills that help one make a good test manager:
It is clear that test management is much more than just resource management as some of the test managers we have met or worked with seem to think.
So what makes a good test manager? It is a combination of people skills combined with test skills. The balance is important. The context of the engagement matters and the balance will change as a test team matures. The one thing that stays constant is the need to have a “people first” attitude. Management is great for handling management responsibilities (reporting and the like), beyond that, you must embrace leadership. When most people complain about their manager they are not complaining about management. They are really complaining about too much management and not enough leadership. A leader is a person who distributes empowerment through trust. It is someone who trusts you to solve problems using the skills you have (or ones they will actively encourage you to develop). They are most definitely not a micromanager and they know how to create an environment in which failure is safe. A manager, on the other hand, talks about how people (they would call them resources) should feel empowered but not give them the right permissions to actually be empowered. They micro manage and assign blame. There is no safe way to fail and the acceptable solutions are your managers solutions. Leaders motivate, managers suck motivation out of people. Daniel Pink in his book Drive – The Surprising Truth of What Motivates Us talks about motivation models. A summary is presented below:
Motivation 1.0 – These are your basic instincts. Humans have had these since the dawn of time. This is the drive to survive.
Motivation 2.0 – The recognition that people respond to reward and punishment (controlled motivation). In the early 1900s Frederick Winslow Taylor was a notable contributor in this area. This approach hinges on rewarding desired behavior and punishing other, unwanted, behavior. This a command and control approach and appears to still be the predominant form of motivation used by managers. Recall that quote from Lenin? Control over trust, that  is motivation 2.0 thinking.
Motivation 3.0 – tapping into people’s intrinsic (autonomous) motivation, the desire to do a great job. Allowing people to utilize their sense of autonomy, allowing them to self-direct. This requires resisting the urge to control people.
If you want people to succeed, excel and engage then you must give them room to do so. Managers must learn to manage less and lead more.
Good test managers follow good practices of management. While people management skills are really important as a leader, another important requirement in becoming a good test manager is to becoming a skillful tester. We strongly recommend that you maintain a healthy interest in continuously improving your testing skills.
Imagine you decide to learn how to drive a motor car. You have a friend and your friend’s Grandfather has decided he will help you. He’s been driving for years so you’re confident that he’ll know what you need to learn. Experience is really important, right? The morning of the first lesson arrives. You sit in the driver’s seat of your car imagining yourself out on the road. Your friend’s Grandfather arrives, gets into the passenger seat and says “You know I’ve been driving for over 60 years”. “Awesome, you respond, you must have driven a lot of cars”. The answer comes back “No, still driving my first model T. I take it out for a short drive every decade or so on a private property”. Is Grandpa really the right guy to be guiding you, teaching you car driving skills? Just about every industry I can think of has examples of people who think knowledge at a point in time (especially certification) equips them for life, and that skill, practice and acquiring new knowledge and skills are not important. This is a bad attitude and a great way to make yourself redundant. You really want to make sure that you don’t roll up to work a “Model T driver” when your team are all suited up “Formula 1 racers”. Experience is important but the right experience is far more useful.
Documentation and metrics (by this we mean metrics that are supported by a clear context that enables them to tell the underlying story) are useful. If you are moving into a test manager role it is likely to be one of the first items added to your “to do” list. Improving your team’s testing capabilities, creating a capability of finding important bugs fast is probably the most important task. Documentation and metrics do not make your clients happy, high quality software does. How you do that depends on your testing and people management skills. As a manager you might simply embark on a “certification collection” exercise and tell your clients “My test resources are really good. They are all certified and we use only best practices”. As a leader you might talk to your people, discover areas they feel development is required. You might also consider skills that do not have “test” as part of their description. Courses that focus on things such as teaching, mentoring, coaching, thinking, analysing, team building, leading. The absence of a certificate at completion will be overridden by the value of the knowledge being brought back to the test team. As a leader you’ll tell your clients “We have a really broad experience base. The people in the test team are broad thinkers, they love analysis and problem solving. We are one of the happiest and strongest teams I have ever worked in”. We have previously answered some questions about certification in the January 2016 edition of Testing Circus magazine. A very good resource for improving testing skills is to attend courses offered by the Association for Software Testing.
Through our experience, we believe that, amongst other things, good test managers are rounded individuals. They manage when required but otherwise lead and are good at leading by example. Their people first approach engages those that work with them and encourages those same people to work with a real passion because their input is highly valued. The testers experiment and innovate because they are lead by someone who makes it safe for them to fail and supports moving forward from the failure. We are not being critical of people who do not demonstrate these skills. We are, however, suggesting that if this article makes you feel like you manage and never lead, it is time to reconsider your approach.
Rob Lambert has written a lot on this topic too, so review his blogs for ideas: http://thesocialtester.co.uk/writing/ http://cultivatedmanagement.com/blog/ http://thesocialtester.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/thediaryofatestmanager.pdf http://cultivatedmanagement.com/how-to-manage-time/
Pink, Daniel H. (2010-01-13). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Canongate Books
Johanna Rothman has written many good articles on this subject. Visit her website for those articles: